Annotated Bibliography


“Constructions of Gender in the History of Artificial Intelligence.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing. 18.3 (1996): 47. Print.

This source will give me a strong basis on which to base my essays and projects from now on by providing a general insight on the history of gender in AI, as well as ask questions that are important to my development of this topic. These questions include assessing whether knowledge has a gender, which will give me clarity on my own  preconceived notions of what gender in artificial intelligence looks likes based on their gender definitions. A lot of our assistants are all knowing in many ways, and mostly are women, but they are referred to as assistants, which doesn’t give off the impression of knowledge, so this journal entry will shed some light on that topic. This will be especially helpful because it approaches the topic, not just from a stance of artificial intelligence, but through philosophy and discussions of the development of feminist theory.

Green, Eileen. “Artificial Intelligence: Gender and the Thinking Machine (Book).” Gender, Work & Organization, vol. 7, no. 4, Oct. 2000, pp. 288-289. EBSCOhost,

This source provides a summary for Artificial Intelligence: Gender and The Thinking Machine by Alison Adam. This is an interesting book that covers gender in Artificial Intelligence from the perspective of a woman who worked in the technology field. Her book explores how society creates these identities that AI have been known to have and continue to have today. Perhaps the most valuable part of this article is the talk of Adam’s attempt to show how the future could be and empirically change it.


Metz, Rachel. “The Dangers of Tech-Bro AI.” MIT Technology Review, vol. 120, no. 6, Nov/Dec2017, p. 45. EBSCOhost,

This small article in MIT’s journal describes the AI problem I was asking when I first took an interest in this topic, but also tries to explain its roots. The article asks the question as to whether or not we should be trying to build AI that is ethical instead of just building AI that functions really well as AI. This idea that the gender of AI implies more about the gender than people give it credit speaks a lot about what our societal ideas about gender really are. The article aims to argue that the applications of AI in the future will be able to, in some way, negatively affect women in some way. This should allow me to convince people that this is an issue worth talking about, as well as something worth changing and being cautious of in the future.

Adam, A. “Gender/Body/Machine.” Ratio, vol. 15, no. 4, Dec. 2002, pp. 354-375. EBSCOhost,

This article considers the idea of having a body and how that affects having knowledge. This article speaks of AI that are embodied and if there are any that are meaningful. This is significant, because many AI are just computers with a voice, but others are put into bodies, like those in the film Ex Machina. This article approaches the idea of building a human through AI by asking if something like this can just be created or would it have to be grown, which is important in describing the complexities of how to represent a person and a gender of an AI to begin with. If we build an AI and represent it as female, is it significant because this AI that was made cannot truly represent a woman who grew up as a woman?

“The Real Reason Voice Assistants Are Female (And Why It Matters).” PC Magazine, Feb. 2018, pp. 39-41. EBSCOhost,

This article isn’t super pervasive or groundbreaking, but it provides a solid basis for the argument of why something like gender representation in AI is important to consider. When you give an AI a name and a voice, regardless of what you may believe, you have assigned it a gender based on our own preconceived notions of gender. I will use this article to describe the dangers of realism in having female assistants in our pocket that we can treat however we would like without any consequence. What about when robots do look human, and we start getting used to treating realistic AI robots badly. Will this transition into our daily lives with people? I think so.