Annotated Bibliography

Trottier, Daniel, and Christian Fuchs. Social Media, Politics and the State Protests, Revolutions, Riots, Crime and Policing in the Age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube. Routledge, 2015.

This book discusses how censorship has changed throughout the history of the Internet, with a particular focus on how Anonymous has changed the landscape of Internet censorship. Additionally, it discusses how capitalism and the private corporation controlling much of the news stream and information dissemination in America influences censorship, and how that is contradictory to the Internet’s culture of freedom. This will be interesting to use as a wider source regarding Internet censorship and Internet culture, before narrowing down to the more specific topic of YouTube censorship.

Morgans, Melissa J. “Freedom of Speech, the War on Terror, and What’s YouTube Got to Do with It: American Censorship during Times of Military Conflict,” Federal Communications Law Journal vol. 69, no. 2 (August 2017): p. 145-172.

This text discusses the history of American censorship, especially during wartime, when it has been the most prevalent in American history. It also discusses how social media, and YouTube, has complicated that censorship, due to the fact that it allows information to be spread incredibly widely and quickly, and cannot thus be easily censored by one person or entity. I think this source is interesting because it looks at the difficulties of censorship from a different perspective: not from that of the anonymity of the Internet, but from the quick and easy spread of information on the Internet.

Crick, Matthew. Power, Surveillance, and Culture in YouTubeTM‘s Digital Sphere. Information Science Reference, 2016.

This book discusses YouTube, its history, and the culture surrounding it. Additionally, it discusses the rise of the copyright claim and Fair Use, which allow for companies to take down YouTube videos if they feel that the use of their content by other original creators is not being changed enough for educational or other purposes. It also discusses the consumer tracking by YouTube and Google, and its rise to power over traditional media. This source is very good simply for looking at the history of YouTube, social media, and partially the Internet in general, in order to gain a better understanding of how it has taken over traditional media and thus become a target for censorship.

Kreimer, Seth F. “Censorship by Proxy: The First Amendment, Internet Intermediaries, and the Problem of the Weakest Link,” University of Pennsylvania Law Review vol. 155, no. 1 (November 2006): p. 11-102.

This text discusses specifically the use of YouTube as a proxy censor. It is very hard for the United States government, bound by the First Amendment, to censor any information not classified as hate speech by itself. Additionally, due to the anonymity of the Internet on both the part of creators and consumers, censorship is more difficult than in days past. The solution, therefore, is for the government to request that other parties provide censorship for them, restricting the flow of information through the weakest links. This source will be useful to examine censorship by proxy, and how YouTube fits into those dynamics through the restrictions its Terms of Service puts on users and the freedom those Terms of Service gives the site.

United States District Court Northern District of California San Francisco Division. James Sweet, Et Al., v. Google Inc. 9 Nov. 2017.

This court case clarifies the legality of censorship by demonetization by YouTube, and thus, Google at large. Because users sign the terms of service that YouTube presents, or otherwise were unable to use the platform at all, they have no legal standing to push back against any sort of censorship that they feel that YouTube has enacted through demonetization; the Internet and the sites therein, therefore, have none of the restriction that the U.S. government does. I think this source will be interesting to use when looking at the history of censorship, and how that has changed as entertainment and the dissemination of information has changed over time.