Reichert, Tom. “Sex in Advertising Research: A Review of Content,
Effects, and Functions of Sexual Information in Consumer Advertising.” Annual Review of Sex Research, vol. 13, no. 1, 2002, pp. 241-273.
This article studies, through review of other studies, the many different ways sex is used in advertising. Through examination of content analyses, it is proven that using sexual content in ads can be an effective mode of persuasion. This article also discusses the prevalence of sex in advertisements, noting that the majority of studies on the topic itself were in fact a response to the ubiquity of female bodies featured commercially. Emotional and action-oriented responses to sexual advertisements are described, which lends a hand to my research on how these ads are provoking human behavior.
Tuchman, Gaye, et al. “Hearth and Home: Images of Women in the Mass Media.” Oxford University Press, 1978.
The excerpt of this book that I examine provides a useful definition for “sex roles”, and explains how the portrayal of these roles in mass media have changed over time–especially regarding women. These demeaning representations have real world consequences on women, as shown through case studies in this piece. The reflection hypothesis and symbolic annihilation are both defined and explained; these are two terms that could be of great use in my project when explaining the costly effects of the media. Overall, this literature has a lot to offer about how the derogatory exhibition of women in media impacts women, and the way they’re perceived, in real life.
Neil, Dan. “Sexualization of fast food in advertising on the rise.” Chicago Tribune, 14 Apr. 2009, http://www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/health/sns-health-fast-food-sexualization-story.html. Accessed 1 March 2018.
This article addresses the motives for sexual food advertising and its intended audience, that is composed of “digital natives who have had their normative values defined by life online”–or a younger audience. The temptation to advertise fast food in this manner is explained, as it intends to distract from the health consequences of the food being consumed by using sexy women eating it. It also presents a man’s perspective upon viewing these over-sexualized fast food advertisements, which provides some insight on how these ads work.
Poon, Stephen. “The Function of Sexual Imagery and Visual Seduction in Food Advertising.” International Journal of Advances in Social Science and Humanities, 2016.
This study focuses on why people are drawn to erotic advertisements about food. Through case studies, the relevance of sexual imagery to the actual food being advertised is examined and interpreted. It is found that seductive marketing tactics result in effortless brand recognition. Additionally, it is argued that seductive advertising is only successful at times in which product recognition and arousal are also high. These case studies, and their interpretations, will provide valuable information for my final project.
Kemp, Nicola. “ASA to introduce new guidelines on gender stereotyping in ads.” Campaign, 18 July 2017, http://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/asa-introduce-new-guidelines-gender-stereotyping-ads/1439657. Accessed 1 March 2018.
This article discusses fairly recent restrictions for advertising in the UK. It is interesting to note the progress being made; only some types of gender stereotyping in ads are banned. Examples of these are given, along with six categories of gender stereotyping in advertisements: roles, characteristics, mocking people for not conforming to stereotype, sexualization, objectification, and body image. These categories will be extremely helpful for describing and differentiating the ads I will be using in my final project.
Suggett, Paul. “The Impact of Advertising on Body Image.” The Balance, 27 Sept. 2017, http://www.thebalance.com/the-impact-of-advertising-on-body-image-4151839. Accessed 1 March 2018.
This article discusses the especially negative impact of advertising on the body images of women. Some helpful statistics are presented, which put issues like eating disorders, self-doubt, and insanity of model sizes into perspective. Additionally, image manipulation, social media, and cyberbullying about physical characteristics are problematized. Evidence is shown that advertising clearly has a negative impact on body image and self-esteem, especially when it comes to women.